VOLUME 7 ISSUE 2 FALL 2021

5 6 S p i r i t ua l i t y S t u d i e s 7 - 2 Fa l l 2 0 2 1 4 From Integumental to Tropological Allegory After this period of the 12 th century, allegory significantly recedes, mainly due to the influence of the systematization of university education – studium generale – but also as a re - sult of obligatory study of Aristotle and his model of science, which has a strict way of expression and requires a precise logical argumentation. 4.1 A Retreat from Theoretical Commentaries and the Arrival of Practice According to Beryl Smalley (1984, 266), this period was marked by the end of interest in biblical exegesis. Theologi- cal studies focused more on political, ethical, and legal topics due to the historical context of the era (the papal schism and other issues). This tendency to neglect biblical studies was most bravely faced by the Franciscans (e.g. , Peter John Olivi or Henry of Ghent). However, their commentaries to the Old and New Testament had a rather small impact (Smalley 1984, 267). Furthermore, according to Christel Meier (1996, 60), the share of moral exegesis increased, which could be seen in an unprecedent growth of the number of moral tutorials (e.g. , Repertorium morale , Directorium morale etc.). This change of perception influences allegory too. While before it was per - ceived in a close relation with the Scripture and nature, later it was driven towards practice – what needs to be done (Lat. quid faciendum est – Hugh of St. Cher in Smith 1966, 85). This transition to practice gives a new content to allegory – which had already been pointed out by St. Augustine – asso - ciated with life, practice, moral use. This type of allegory was given the name tropological , and it found many supporters mainly within Franciscan spirituality. It is the moral sense (Lat. sensus moralis ), the aim of which is to imitate the model of someone’s behavior. 4.2 Tropology as a Basis of Mystical and Affective Imitatio A distinct example of such a tropology is given by Bonaven - ture of Bagnoregio (†1274) and his work Itinerarium mentis in Deum (1259), submitted to his brothers as his recipe for the imitation of Christ, as well as a smaller opus Unus est Magister vester , where he particularly emphasizes the motive of imitation of Christ (Lat. imitatio ), which is substantiated only within the framework of assimilation to the Master (Lat. assimilatio ). Bonaventure sees the drama of Christ’s life as a symbol of the drama of a man, as an adumbration and model of life, as a prototype presented to a disciple. The disciple (believer) tries to assimilate the Master by living ac- cording to his example, by learning to act/live like him and to feel (Lat. affectus ) like him. Both works of Bonaventure are characterized by dynamic terms: journey, pilgrimage, imitation. They are an infallible sign of the constant process prepared for his brothers in their difficult role. Journey represents the humble looking up of an imperfect human being to his perfect counterpart, symbolically indicated in every single step of this rise and guided and mediated by the light of God. Light is present everywhere as a quiet motive that represents the basis of all our knowledge, and our knowledge of the world and things around us grows hand in hand with the growing intensity of the light. Only through its higher level do we recognize other people as equal beings and ourselves as dignified images of the Supreme. It helps us realize ourselves and something that transcends us. Bonaventure distinguishes several types of such enlighten- ment (Lat. speculationes ) and each level is characterized by a specific kind of knowledge. To complete it means to step “inside” God himself. In his work, the author rather often uses the term speculatio and the term speculum – Lat. “mirror”. The world is a speculum , but especially man is a speculum (being imago ). He reflects the universe and all its parts, but he is not similar to them, as he is the speculum of the Supreme. However, the term is also related to another aspect: man gets to know things in a deeper way (Lat. speculari ). According to Bonaventure, the world surrounding us hides many symbols for our lives that speak to us and reflect a certain kind of truth (Lat. speculum ). Thanks to our ability to see and the light (Lat. speculatio ) we can define and realize it (Lat. specu- lari ), as well as to reflect on it (Lat. reflectere – literally “reflect the light”).

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