Volume 5 Issue 1 Spring 2019

3 2 S p i r i t ua l i t y S t u d i e s 5 - 1 S p r i n g 2 0 1 9 Notes [1] There used to be a difference between the Hindu (Ary- an, Northern) and Dravidian (Southern) understanding of dharma . [2] As the term “Brahminic tradition” may have a  cast ( var- na ) related colour, when possible, the term Vedic reli- gion is used. This is used in spite of the fact that West- ern researchers see as Vedic religion only a past form od Sanātana Dharma. [3] Sanātana Dharma as an expression of Indian dharmas is also only >200 years old. [4] Ananda is an expression very difficult to translate, but “bliss” may be close to it. [5] Presumably training – sādhana . [6] See: “ one need not be religious in the minimal sense de- scribed to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu. ” (Lipner 2009, 8, also pages 17–18). [7] According to Gandhi, “ a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu ”. [8] His views were originally written in French under the title La Voie du Silence and published in 1956. [9] He declares that Ramakrishna was a Tantra Yoga practi- tioner (which is incorrect), the bījā mantra resembles for him the reproductive cycle (what is incorrect), he con- siders Patañjali’s  Yoga Sūtras as the fundamental San- skrit Yoga text and continues asserting that Yoga con- sists of bodily and breathing exercises. Patañjali does not elaborate on bodily postures (he refers to principles that relate to sitting positions). He, however, omits the Hatha Yoga texts, where bodily postures are inherent. He states incorrectly, that bodily postures were devel- oped as parts of religious procedures, what is doubtful. Thus, his insight into Yoga is very limited and somewhat distorted. [10] The text lacks perfection in English, but it is a citation. [11] Verse IV. 16 of the Katha Upanishad on nādis is similar to the verse III. 6 of the Praśna Upanishad (Nikhilananda 1963). [12] With the exception of bhakti , later forms of Vedānta influenced by the Āgamas and the traditions inspired by Vaishnava masters or some Tantra Yoga branches, where rituals may occur (Siddhath 2019). Acknowledgement The author is grateful to pandit Anuradha Choudry and pan- dit Siddhartha Krishna for consultations on the subject of this paper.

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